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    الضمائر الشخصية - personal pronouns
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أدوات الدرس
Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5            

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns represent specific people or things. We use them depending on:

  • number: singular (eg: I) or plural (eg: we)
  • person: 1st person (eg: I), 2nd person (eg: you) or 3rd person (eg: he)
  • gender: male (eg: he), female (eg: she) or neuter (eg: it)
  • case: subject (eg: we) or object (eg: us)

We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about. My name is Josef but when I am talking about myself I almost always use "I" or "me", not "Josef". When I am talking direct to you, I almost always use "you", not your name. When I am talking about another person, say John, I may start with "John" but then use "he" or "him". And so on.

Here are the personal pronouns, followed by some example sentences:

number person gender personal pronouns
subject object
singular 1st male/female I me
2nd male/female you you
3rd male he him
female she her
neuter it it
plural 1st male/female we us
2nd male/female you you
3rd male/female/neuter they them

Examples (in each case, the first example shows a subject pronoun, the second an object pronoun):

  • I like coffee.
  • John helped me.

  • Do you like coffee?
  • John loves you.

  • He runs fast.
  • Did Ram beat him?

  • She is clever.
  • Does Mary know her?

  • It doesn't work.
  • Can the engineer repair it?

  • We went home.
  • Anthony drove us.

  • Do you need a table for three?
  • Did John and Mary beat you at doubles?

  • They played doubles.
  • John and Mary beat them.

When we are talking about a single thing, we almost always use it. However, there are a few exceptions. We may sometimes refer to an animal as he/him or she/her, especially if the animal is domesticated or a pet. Ships (and some other vessels or vehicles) as well as some countries are often treated as female and referred to as she/her. Here are some examples:

  • This is our dog Rusty. He's an Alsation.
  • The Titanic was a great ship but she sank on her first voyage.
  • My first car was a Mini and I treated her like my wife.
  • Thailand has now opened her border with Cambodia.

For a single person, sometimes we don't know whether to use he or she. There are several solutions to this:

  • If a teacher needs help, he or she should see the principal.
  • If a teacher needs help, he should see the principal.
  • If a teacher needs help, they should see the principal.

We often use it to introduce a remark:

  • It is nice to have a holiday sometimes.
  • It is important to dress well.
  • It's difficult to find a job.
  • Is it normal to see them together?
  • It didn't take long to walk here.

We also often use it to talk about the weather, temperature, time and distance:

  • It's raining.
  • It will probably be hot tomorrow.
  • Is it nine o'clock yet?
  • It's 50 kilometres from here to Cambridge.

Summary

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns stand in for people, places, things and ideas.

(1st person) I, Me, My, Mine,We, Us, Our, Ours
(2nd Person) You, Your, Yours
(3rd Person) He, Him, His, She, Her, Hers, They, Them, Their, Theirs, It, Its, Who, Whom, Whose
What pronoun is used depends on the case
(Subjective/Nominative) I, You, She, He, They, We, It, Who
(Objective) Me, You, Him, Her, Them, Us, It, Whom
(Possessive) Mine, Yours, His, Hers, Theirs, Ours, Its, Whose

[In the following examples, the personal pronoun is bold.]

  1. The boy hopes that someone will give him a cookie from the table.
    1. The objective form of the pronoun is used because the pronoun HIM is an indirect object.
  2. Does Jim think that he will be able to attend the lecture.
    1. The subjective form of the pronoun is used because HE is the subject for the verb WILL BE ABLE.
  3. Will Alexis donate her dresses to the celebrity auction?
    1. The possesive form of the pronoun (HER) is used to denote ownership.
  4. Did Arnold offer them a ride to the game.
    1. The objective form of the pronoun is used because THEM is an indirect object.
  5. Who will be attending the reception?
    1. The subjective form of the pronoun is used because WHO is the subject for the verb WILL BE ATTENDING.
  6. Can Connor bring his puppy to school.
    1. The possesive form of the pronoun (HIS) is used to denote ownership.
أدوات الدرس
Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5