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    الضمائر - Pronouns
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Verbs -Modals
- Modals of Ability: Can, Could, Be able to, May, Might
-  Modals of Advice- Should, Ought to, Had better
 -  Modals of Necessity- Must, Have got to, Have to
- Modals with “Not”- Must not, Do not have to
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Pronouns
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- Demonstrative Pronouns
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- Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives
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- Impersonal “It” and “There”
- Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns
- relative Pronouns  { Whom, Whose, and Who's }
-  Collective Nouns and Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns
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Articles/Determiners
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Prepositions of Position — in, at, on
Prepositions of Time — in, at, on
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أدوات الدرس

PRONOUNS

Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns.

Every pronoun must have a clear antecedent (the word for which the pronoun stands).

KINDS OF PRONOUNS

                         

A.   Personal Pronouns:  

             

             

SINGULAR

PLURAL

subjective

objective

possessive

subjective

objective

possessive

1st person

I

me

my, mine

we

us

our, ours

2nd person

you

you

your, yours

you

you

your, yours

3rd person

he

she

it

him

her

it

his

her,  hers

its

they

 

them

their, theirs

                 

            

Personal pronouns have the following characteristics:

           

1.  three persons (points of view)

       1st person - the one(s) speaking  (I  me my  mine  we  us our ours
       2nd person - the one(s) spoken to  (you your yours)
       3rd person - the one(s) spoken about  (he  him  his  she her hers  it  its  they  their  theirs

          Examples
         

2.  three genders

       feminine  (she  her  hers)
       masculine (he  him  his)
       neuter  (it its  they them their theirs

          Examples

         
 

3.  two numbers

       singular (I  me  my  mine  you  your  yours  he  him  his  she  her  hers it its)
       plural  (we  us  our  ours  you  your yours  they  them  their  theirs

          Examples

         

 

4.  three cases

      subjective (I  you  he  she  it  we  they)
      possessive  (my  mine  your  yours  his  her  hers  our  ours  their  theirs)
      objective   (me  you  him  her  it  us  them)

           Examples - subjective case

 

           Examples - possessive case

             

 

           Examples - objective case

      

 

   NOTE:  Because of pronoun case, the pronoun's form changes with its function in the sentence.  Follow this link to pronoun case for more information.

 

B.      Demonstrative Pronouns:

                             

                   

Demonstrative pronouns can also be used as determiners.

                  

Example:

            

Hand me that hammer. (that describes the noun hammer)

                           

Demonstrative pronouns can also be used as qualifiers:

           

Example:

         

She wanted that much money? (that describes the adjective much)

 

                   

C. Reflexive / Intensive Pronouns :  the "self" pronouns

         

             

These pronouns can be used only to reflect or intensify a word already there in the sentence.

              

Reflexive / intensive pronouns CANNOT REPLACE personal pronouns.

                        

Examples:

                

I saw myself  in the mirror. (Myself is a reflexive pronoun, reflecting the pronoun I.)

                

I’ll do it myself. (Myself is an intensive pronoun, intensifying the pronoun I.)

                    

                    

Note:  The following words are substandard and should not be used:

                          

             theirselves       theirself          hisself         ourself

 

 

                      

                    

D. Indefinite Pronouns:

                            

Singular:

 

one

someone

anyone

no one

everyone

each

somebody

anybody

nobody

everybody

(n)either

something

anything

nothing

everything

                  

                     

Examples:

                             

Somebody is coming to dinner.

Neither of us believes a word Harry says.

Plural:     

Examples:

Both are expected at the airport at the same time.

Several have suggested canceling the meeting.

Singular with non-countables / Plural with countables:

Examples:

Some of the dirt has become a permanent part of the rug.

Some of the trees have been weakened by the storm.

Indefinite pronouns use apostrophes to indicate possessive case.

Examples:

The accident is nobody’s fault.

How will the roadwork affect one's daily commute?

Some indefinite pronouns may also be used as determiners.

one, each, either, neither, some, any, one, all, both, few, several, many, most

Note the differences:

Each person has a chance.

(Each is a determiner describing person.)

Each has a chance.

(Each is an indefinite pronoun replacing a noun.)

Both lawyers pled their cases well.

(Both is a determiner describing  lawyers.)

Both were in the room.

(Both is an indefinite pronoun replacing a noun.)

E. Interrogative Pronouns:

Interrogative pronouns produce information questions that require more than a “yes” or “no” answer.

Examples:

What do you want?

Who is there?

F. Relative Pronouns:

Relative pronouns introduce relative (adjectival) clauses.

 

 

Note: Use who, whom, and whose to refer to people.

Use that and which to refer to things.



أدوات الدرس