راسلنا التسجيل الشات المنتدى رئيسية الموقع
      مقدمة - Intro  
 
Manner of Articulation:
 
      الشرح - explanation  
 

Manner of Articulation:

1. Stop (Plosive)

 (Complete or full closure of the articulators involved so that the air stream cannot escape through the mouth before it is suddenly released causing a small burst). There are two possible types of stop.

2. Fricative

(Close approximation of two articulators so that the air stream is partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced.) The mechanism involved in making these slightly hissing sounds may be likened to that involved when the wind whistles around a corner. The consonants in 'fie, vie' (labiodental), 'thigh, thy' (dental), 'sigh, zoo' (alveolar), and 'shy' (alveo-palatal) are examples of fricative sounds.

3. Approximant

 (An articulation in which one articulator is close to another, but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent air stream is produced.) In saying the first sound in 'yacht,' the front of the tongue is raised toward the palatal area of the roof of the mouth, but it does not come close enough for a fricative sound to be produced. The consonants in the word 'we' (approximation between the lips and in the velar region) and, for some people, in the word 'raw' (approximation in the alveolar region) are also examples of approximants. Approximants are sometimes called glides or semi-vowels.

 

4.  Lateral (Approximant)

(Obstruction of the air stream at a point along the center of the oral tract, with incomplete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the mouth.) Say the word 'lie' and note how the tongue touches near the center of the alveolar ridge. Prolong the initial consonant and note how, despite the closure formed by the tongue, air flows out freely, over the side of the tongue.

5. Trill

It might be useful to know the terms trill (also called roll) and tap (or flap). Tongue-tip trills occur in some forms of Scottish English in words like 'rye' and 'raw'. Trills are described as intermittent sounds because of the repetitive nature of its production where several contacts are made between articulators. Taps, in which the tongue makes a single tap against the alveolar ridge, occur in the middle of a word such as 'pity' in many forms of American English.

6. Affricate

The production of some sounds involves more than one of these manners of articulation. Say the word 'cheap' (which is quite different from 'sheep') and think about how you make the first sound. At the beginning, the tongue comes up to make contact with the back part of the alveolar ridge to form a stop closure (note that the alveo-palatal area rather than the beginning of the alveolar ridge is the one used). This contact is the slackened that there is a fricative at the same place of articulation. This kind of combination of a stop and a fricative is called an affricate; in this case an alveo-palatal affricate.  

 
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